D.A. Pennebaker‘s name is synonymous with the Direct Cinema movement, but he went a far different route with his debut short film, Daybreak Express. Led by a propulsive jazz score from Duke Ellinton, Pennebaker’s frantic editing mirrors the fleeting images of a train ride filtered through a wildly expressionist lens. It’s hard not to think of this as some sort of antecedent to Bruce Baillie‘s avant-garde short Castro Street–both shorts similarly utilize the rhythmic motion of a train ride as a way to capture the bustle of city life– with Baillie’s film acting as dreamy counterpart to Pennebaker’s ebullience.